Find the best way to identify the sign and symptoms of diabetes in dogs and how to diagnose it. Learn the treatment and prevention of diabetes in dogs, and find what are the causes of diabetes in dogs.
Diabetes is a disease that humans, dogs, cats and other mammals are subject to, the diet of which is distorted for various reasons. The pathogenesis of the disease is almost identical in all species, but the specificity and treatment of the disease differ for everyone. Diabetes mellitus in dogs is treated differently than the human, it is not classified, it is not a chronic pathology and does not lead to death.
Diabetes in dogs
Glucose is an integral part of the normal life of the mammal’s body. Dogs usually do not consume sweets in their diet, but they get glucose through the other food products.
In the process of digesting food, glucose through the intestine is absorbed into the blood, and the current of the latter carries it through all the cells of the body. However, cells cannot just digest glucose, they need a signal, the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas.
The essence of diabetes is insulin deficiency, the inability of cells to metabolize glucose and accumulate it in the blood (hyperglycemia). The reason for this may be pancreatic insufficiency when insulin is too low or the cells do not perceive it, or atrophy of nerve endings of cells.
In any case, the cells do not receive the necessary substance, the body consumes glucose completely and fairly quickly. As a result, the kidneys undergo a load, begin to perform poorly their function, the excess sugar is excreted in the urine. Then glucose combines with water and removes the latter from the body, respectively, reduces the volume of circulating blood, creating a threat of dehydration. Progression of the disease is accompanied by an increase in the severity of signs of pathology.
Sign and symptoms of diabetes in dogs
- High glucose values in urine and blood. To determine this you have to undergo clinical analyzes after consulting vet.
- The dog suffer from permanent thirst. Dogs begin to drink more and, accordingly, urination becomes more frequent.
- There is the frequent reduction of weight in the dog. This is due to the fact that cells suffering from glucose deficiency die.
- Strong appetite despite weight loss. The pet eats more to compensate for the loss, but the weight does not increase because the cells are not susceptible to sugar.
- Diabetic ketoacidosis the formation of acetone, the most severe stage of the disease. The body massively breaks down fats, the liver and kidneys are very poorly functioning, the toxins of decay are not eliminated. Blood is oxidized, which affects the vessels, there is a smell of acetone from the mouth. The temperature drops, the mucous membranes become bluish. If you move the eyelid, you can see the bursting vessels.
Ketoacidosis against diabetes mellitus is the last, critical stage of diseases. It can be accompanied by fainting, paralysis, diarrhea, vomiting, excessive salivation, coma. The animal will die without radical intervention for several hours or days.
Also, the symptoms of diabetes in dogs include cataracts (opacity of the lens), cystitis or any other acute diseases that are bacterial. In addition, there is a general weakness, there may be numbness of the extremities, which is manifested in pulling or tucking legs.
Causes of diabetes
The early stages of the development of the disease almost do not manifest themselves. In order to prevent regular blood and urine tests, only dogs with a hereditary predisposition to such ailments give up.
The physiological causes of the disease include obesity, inflammation / pancreatic insufficiency (vomiting is present), hormonal failure in estrus, after it, due to hormonal therapy, etc. Diabetes is not a viral disease, so it affects absolutely all breeds of animals.
In practice, it has been proved that translations and mestizo, animals with hereditary predisposition can also get ill. More carefully you need to treat animals older than 6 years of age. As for sex, the bitch is sicker than the males, this is due to a more shaky hormonal system. There is a high probability of development of pathology in unsterilized, nulliparous females who have undergone false pregnancies.
Differential and standard diagnostics
Finding one or several symptoms from your pet at once, you should not panic and even more, so yourself to make a diagnosis and prescribe a treatment. Increased glucose levels can be triggered by malnutrition or newly experienced stress. Excessive thirst can be explained by kidney failure or purulent inflammation of the uterus.
Symptoms such as a strong appetite and lack of weight gain are observed when helminths (worms) are affected. Dehydration can result in a variety of causes, ranging from a heat stroke to a severe chronic illness. Numbness of limbs or paralysis also occurs with injuries, as well as damage to the central nervous system. Such a symptom as cataracts often occurs in animals that have crossed the 7-year of age.
Bacterial diseases of the urinary system are found in females after estrus or antibiotic therapy.
The specialist will take a number of tests and procedures to confirm the diagnosis:
- An extensive analysis of urine and blood.
- Analysis for acetone.
- The level of sugar in the blood in the dynamics.
- Hormonal tests.
- Ultrasound if necessary.
Treatment of diabetes in dogs
To restore the health of the pet, you need to inject insulin from the outside. Treatment is aimed at decreasing the symptoms of the disease and maintaining normal sugar levels. The optimal option is the remission of pathology when insulin injections are minimized or the need for such disappears.
The animal will need to inject insulin every day. The dog is also given a diet that not only presupposes certain foods, but also the specific time of their consumption. In addition, the animal needs regular exercise.
On an individual basis, the doctor selects the dose of insulin and the frequency of its administration. The first injection is determined based on the condition and weight of the pet. Then you need to keep a diary, adjust the dose, take urine and blood samples, thereby selecting the supporting one.
The feeding regimen is made depending on the insulin drug used.
There are several schemes:
- Introduction of a fast, medium, slow-acting agent, feeding after a certain time.
- Fractional feeding, eating small amounts, but at short intervals.
- Prick before and after eating.
- Permanent access to food.
Life expectancy of sick animals depends largely on treatment and proper diet. It is very important that there is no decrease in insulin levels. What foods to choose for a sick pet depend on its eating habits and condition. On a mandatory basis, the food should be slowly digestible, low-calorie, rich in protein, fibrous. It is worth noting that now you can buy a special food for diabetics.
Drug treatment of diabetes in dogs
As in all other cases, the earlier to start therapy, the better the prognosis. Let’s consider the most difficult variant of animal rehabilitation.
If the host detects the symptoms of ketoacidosis in a dog or cat (partial paralysis, unsteady gait, acetone breathing), it is necessary:
- Lubricate the tongue, the gum, the area under the tongue with sugar syrup or honey, that is, a product that is rich in sugar. Then urgently need to go to the veterinary clinic.
- To stabilize the animal’s condition, it must be hospitalized. To reduce blood acidity and normalize insulin levels, intravenous injections and droppers with appropriate drugs are required.
- The physician should perform a comprehensive diagnosis in order to identify the damaged organs and systems, assess the extent of the lesion. Depending on the conflicting therapies and risks, global or symptomatic treatment is prescribed.
- In the future, the dose and frequency of insulin administration in a hospital setting is selected.
- When the threat of life disappears, the pet is discharged. Already at home, the owner should independently introduce insulin-containing and supporting agents.
Insulin is administered subcutaneously at home. The drug begins to act after 20-140 minutes.
Provide the animal with regular physical activity, but it is not recommended to carry it to the hunt or engage in other long physical training. Remember that excessive intensity affects the sick body, reducing sensitivity to insulin, leads to exhaustion